The Egyptian Rite of Misraim (also spelled "Mizraim") is said to have been founded in Milan, Italy in 1805 and later transferred to France in 1814. However, this rite was never accepted by regular Freemasonry. In 1862, another irregular rite known as the Memphis Rite gained popularity in the US. This rite, also called the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry" or the "Oriental Order of Memphis," is distinct from the Misraim Rite.
On June 4, 1872, the ex-mason John Yarker bought permission to introduce the Memphis Rite in England. Under his jurisdiction, Memphis and Misraim came together, now known as The Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim or Memphis-Misraim.
Allegedly, on September 24, 1902, the German Theodor Reuss bought permission from Yarker to install the Scottish Rite (AASR, 33 degrees) and the "irregular" Memphis-Misraim Rites (90 and 97 degrees) in Germany, although Yarker had been expelled by order of the Supreme Council on recommendation of a Sovereign Tribunal held at Manchester on November 18, 1870.
Reuss published an alleged transcript of his charter in his private magazine "Oriflamme". The issue of December 1902 mentions the 33°, 90°, and 96°, but the original Charter only mentions degrees 30°-33° (without Memphis-Misraim). Nevertheless, Reuss assumed he could make regular Freemasons through his compilation of Orders. In 1917, he would render some AASR- and Memphis-Misraim degrees into the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.), founded in 1906.
The Memphis Rite was sometimes called the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry," sometimes the "Oriental Order of Memphis," and sometimes the "Oriental Templars." It is unclear which orders Reuss was a member of and how they were linked. Additionally, it is not necessarily the case that an O.T.O. member was automatically a member of the Memphis-Misraim Rite.
In the following online texts, readers can find information on Memphis-Misraim, which is sometimes referred to as the Mother Order of the O.T.O.