Order of Illuminati — Weltbund der Illuminaten — World League of Illuminati — Ordo Illuminatorum — Illuminaten Orden — Ordo Illuminatorum Germaniae — Societas Totius Mundi Illuminatorum — Ordo Templi Orientis — Fraternitas Saturni


Order of Illuminati
Weltbund der Illuminaten
World League of Illuminati
Ordo Illuminatorum
Illuminaten Orden
Ordo Illuminatorum Germaniae
Societas Totius Mundi Illuminatorum
Ordo Templi Orientis
Fraternitas Saturni



by Peter-R. Koenig

The authentic Order of Illuminati
of Adam Weishaupt never found any
historical continuity — apart
from Johann Joachim Bode in Weimar,
until his death in 1793.


Order of Illuminati




Literature on the original Illuminati Order




Peter Christian Ludz: "Geheime Gesellschaften", Heidelberg 1979.
Helmut Reinalter: "Freimaurer und Geheimbünde", Frankfurt am Main 1986.
Gerd-Klaus Kaltenbrunner: "Geheimgesellschaften", Munich 1987.
Manfred Agethen: "Geheimbund und Utopie", Munich 1987.
Richard van Dülmen: "Der Geheimbund der Illuminaten", Stuttgart-Bad 1975.
Leopold Engel: "Geschichte des Illuminaten-Ordens", Berlin 1906, Munich 1978, and Bremen 1985.
Adam Weishaupt, Leopold Engel & H.J. Metzger: "Über die Selbstkenntnis", Zuerich 1966.

Used for this article (= chapter 11 of "Das O.T.O. Phänomen", Munich 1994):
On the life of Leopold Engel, see: Karl Frick: "Licht und Finsternis", Graz 1978, p. 465.
Ellic Howe/Helmut Möller: "Merlin Peregrinus", Wuerzburg 1986, p. 122.
Various pieces of information in this chapter marked with an asterisk (*) originate from a letter written by Hermann Joseph Metzger's lover, Anita Borgert to her lawyer Ludwig Delp on December 2nd 1970.
Sources of quotations and dates without footnotes are reprinted as a facsimile in "Materialien zum O.T.O."
Helmut Moeller, Ellic Howe, Merlin Peregrinus, Vom Untergrund des Abendlandes, Theodor Reuss, Aleister Crowley, Ordo Templi Orientis, O.T.O.





Presidents of the 'World League of Illuminati'



1880 — Allegedly, the singer and pharmacist Theodor Reuss re-activated the "Ludwig Lodge" [1] of the Illuminati Order (IO) in Munich. [2] Sources to these dates are highly speculative, see the events of 1901.
The actor and author Leopold Engel ("Theophrastus", b. 19.4.1858) joined the Lodge founded in Berlin in 1895, on November 9th 1896. [3]
Leopold's father, Karl Dietrich Engel (1824-1913) was a violinist and in 1846 became Konzertmeister (leader) of the orchestra of the Imperial Russian Theatre. When he returned to Germany he eventually settled at Dresden and wrote extensively on the Faust legend. His son, Leopold Engel was an itinerant actor who practised hypnotism and alleged naturopathic healing on the side.

[On the right: Theodor Reuss]
Theodor Reuss Peregrinus


1893 — Leopold Engel founded the World League at Berlin [other sources state that Engel first founded his IO in 1897 at Dresden]. [4] Reuss himself does not appear to have been involved in any regular masonic activity since he had joined the Pilgrim Lodge in London in 1876.

[On the right: Leopold Engel]
Leopold Engel Order of Illuminati Weltbund der Illuminaten World League of Illuminati Ordo Illuminatorum Illuminaten Orden Ordo Illuminatorum Germaniae Societas Totius Mundi Illuminatorum


1895 — Carl Kellner held discussions with Reuss about his idea to create an 'Academica Masonica' of 'Oriental Templars'. Reuss was too preoccupied with the Illuminati Order though, and Kellner didn't like Reuss' companion Engel. Engel and Reuss fell out.

25.5.1896 — the Spiritualist Engel, Max Rahn of the Sphinx periodical, August Weinholtz "et alii" founded the 'Union of German Occultists.' [5] Weinboltz and Rahn were both at Berlin; Engel lived at Dresden. Rahn had a job at the Börse (stock exchange) and Weinholtz owned a business which supplied equipment for horse drawn carriages. Rahn and Engel were joint secretaries of the Society of German Occultists, and Weinholtz its treasurer. Rahn and Weinholtz were respectively the editor and publisher of the periodical "Die Übersinnliche Welt" which was mainly concerned with alleged psychic phenomena, animal magnetism and similar subjects. In his turn Leopold Engel edited and published the periodical, "Das Wort" (No. I, 1894), which reflected its proprietor's esoteric preoccupations.

30.8.1896 — Reuss, Franz Hartmann, Engel "et alii" were co-founders of the 'Theosophical Society in Germany.'

In 1897-98 Rahn and Engel edited and published an "International Directory of Seekers after Truth" for the benefit of the occult fraternity.


1899 — Engel's IO and Reuss's IO were united (again?).
In "Das Wort", the organ of the Illuminati Order, Reuss published a 'Political Review' in 1900. [6]
Reuss received a Martinist charter from 'Papus' in 1901; naturally enough, as they were both Theosophists.
Theodor Reuss 1900 Carl Kellner's Emblem of the Memphis- and Misraim Rite. Leopold Engel Order of Illuminates Das Wort Leopol Engel Theodor Reuss Die Mysterien der Illuminaten


12.3.1901 — Engel and Reuss sought to lend their organisation more "gravitas" with a home-made and back-dated charter [7] allegedly giving them power to re-establish the OI (as founded by Adam Weishaupt): Theodor Reuss, Leopold Engel, August Weinholtz, Max Rahn and Siegmund Miller, who were joined by Max Heilbronner and Georg Gierloff, met at Reuss's home in Berlin and resolved to re-open the Ludwig Lodge which had been founded at Munich in 1880. According to the minutes the dormant Ludwig Lodge was "ancient and accepted". The following officers were then unanimously elected: Master: Theodor Reuss, Senior Warden: August Weinholtz, Junior Warden: Max Rahn, Senior Deacon: Leopold Engel, Junior Deacon: Georg Gierloff (Reuss's future brother-in-law), Treasurer: Max Heilbronner.
The Warrant was issued by the Order of the Illuminati and referred to the Order's specific authority to form masonic lodges. Reuss was now accorded the sole right to found and consecrate masonic lodges according to the Order's "lodge regulations". All masonic documents were to be signed and sealed at the Order's office at Dresden. For some unknown reason this document was backdated to 1 January 1900.
The foundation of this Ludwig Lodge was announced in the Rahn-Weinholtz periodical "Die Übersinnliche Welt", where it was stated that "the Order of the Illuminati founds and warrants masonic lodges. However, only master masons can be accepted in the high degrees or found freemasonic lodges ... The Order has close connections with freemasons in France, England and America." It was also emphasized that the lodge was masonically regular and worked a recognized ritual based upon an old and genuine English exemplar. Apart from the three craft degrees there was also a fourth St Andrew's degree. "Master masons who are in possession of the St Andrew's degree and wish to pursue occult studies can be received into the Rosicrucian degree ..."

The brethren soon began to hear objections that the Ludwig Lodge was nothing more than an offshoot of the Order of the Illuminati and not masonic. A solution was easily found. On 3 July 1901 the lodge ceased to have any official connection with the Order and Engel startd to call Reuss' Charter back-dated March 1901 a swindle. Quarrell once again.

September 1901 — Allegedly Kellner, Reuss, and Franz Hartmann founded the O.T.O. [8] This source is highly doutbful because it is to assume that neither Kellner or Franz Hartmann ever knew about the Ordo Templi Orientis, and certainly were no members!
Number 0 of the "Oriflamme" appeared in 1902, in which Leopold Engel, Max Rahn, August Weinholtz and Franz Held were named as the first participants. It appears that Reuss and Engels were reconciled again.

1902 — Meetings held at Dresden. The English Regent of the Reussian OTO was the 'Summus Magus' of the 'Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia,' William Wynn Westcott "Non Omnis Moriar, Sapere Aude" (co-founder of the Golden Dawn). Reuss was the 'Magus' or leader of the short-lived offshoot the 'Societas Rosicruciana in Germania' from 7.7.1902 to 11.7.1907. [9] Engel was its 'Magus Delegatus Primus.'

27.6.1902 — Westcott wrote to Reuss: "Engel told me additionally that I could consider myself as an Illuminatus of the Dresden branch." On 26.8.1902 Westcott accepted "the position as Regent."

On 3 July, according to Reuss, the officers of the Grand Mother Lodge Ludwig resolved to expel Engel and his friend Siegmund Miller on account of certain alleged misdemeanours and they were accordingly banished.
Reuss introduced his Memphis-Misraim in Germany and lost interest in the OI.
    16.10.1902 — Westcott thanked Reuss for an Illuminati Warrant, but stated that he was neither willing nor able to take the IO any further in England, as it was too close to the regular Masonic 18° etc. [10]


June 1902 — Final schism between Engel and Reuss. Kellner's "teachings of the 'Hermetic Brotherhood of Light' would be reserved for a few initiates". [11] Certain Memphis-Misraim degree members soon were to become members of a new organisation: the O.T.O. Reuss' activities now pass beyond the borders of this chapter.




The Ordo Templi Orientis Phenomenon — Theodor Reuss to Aleister Crowley — Hermetic Brotherhood of LightTheodor Reuss to Aleister Crowley, 1917, about the Hermetic Brotherhood of Light.





The Ordo Templi Orientis Phenomenon — Leopold Engel — Illuminati — Illuminaten Orden





Leopold Engel



18.1.1903 — Leopold Engel's Order of the Illuminati in Dresden enacted new statutes. On the title page the words "registered society" were added by hand.

1906 — Engel published the "Geschichte des Illuminaten-Ordens" ("History of the Illuminati Order") at Dresden, in which he distanced himself from Reuss on p. 466.

1911 — Engel included the visions of a woman clairvoyant in his science-fiction novel "Mallona". [12]

10.5.1912 — Engel, Heinrich Widtmann and Willy Vierath founded the 'Institute of Illuminated Freemasons.'

25.5.1912 — New 'Laws of the Inner Order' came into effect.



Leopold Engel Illuminaten Orden Order of the Illuminati Satzung Law


Early 1921 — Leopold Engel's father, the conductor Karl Engel (d. 1913) appeared from the spirit-world, and commanded his son to start an embassy of the other world, through which he "should be prepared to enter into a most exalted and influential life of heavenly glory," wherein he would "communicate his ideas to mankind on Earth." [13]


1.11.23 — Engel authorised Maximilian Haitz "Hartwig" to take care of his collection of books "now and after my death." Leopold Engel Maximilian Haitz Illuminaten Orden Illuminati


1924 — The Dresden IO was forced to close due to lack of members. [14]

11.9.1926 — Legal incorporation of the 'World League of Illuminati' with the authorities at Tempelhof in Berlin. [15]

1928 — Engel recieved "Luzifers Bekenntnisse" ("Lucifer's Confessions") mediumistically. [16]

8.10.1931 — Leopold Engel died.

October 1932 — Julius Meyer "Marius" was elected as new head. [17]

1933 — The Order's Prefect H. Teumer "Theobald" of Chemnitz proposed that the Order of Illuminati should be dissolved. [18]


8.9.1934 — The Gestapo raided Meyer's house.

22.9.1934 — The Gestapo compelled Meyer and Maximilian Haitz to sell off the Order's property. During the Second World War the activities of the 'World League' took place in the national groups abroad {see below}.
Illuminati Illuminaten Orden Gestapo


1.12.46 Mayer sought the return of the Order's property through the Berlin police. He was informed that the Gestapo buildings had been burnt to the ground, and that no paperwork had escaped the fire. Illuminaten Orden Illuminati Gestapo


9.4.1953 — Julius Meyer commissioned Maximilian Haitz in Berlin to act independently "as receiver" of the Order's goods confiscated by the Gestapo, and "also to wholly represent me in the conduct of the Order's work." (Frau Anita Borgert's letter to her lawyer Herr Delp also mentions the Berliner Adolf Wille "Odilo" here. The source for this was apparently Paul Vogel's deed {see below} of 1966 [!], in which Hermann Joseph Metzger was made chief.) Illuminaten Orden Julius Meyer Maximilian Haitz Illuminati Gestapo


1953 Julius Meyer died.

1.11.1955 [19] — Paul Kirchvogel "Klodulf" (member since 5.6.1927) took up the leadership in Kassel. Paul Kirchvogel Illuminati Illuminaten Orden


14.11.1963 — Kirchvogel transferred the presidency to Metzger ("Paragranus") "face to face in Kassel." [20]

As "the O.T.O. under Reuss separated from the Illuminati Order in 1902" Metzger wished to "re-incorporate [everything] in due course."
Illuminaten Orden Hermann Joseph Metzger Illuminati





Provincial Groups



1896 — Engel created the provincial group in Austria.*

1910 — 'Adam Weishaupt zum Licht am Rhein' lodge established at Cologne. [21]

1912 'Adam Weishaupt zur Pyramide' lodge established at Berlin. [22]

1929 — "Illumination" of the 'Zum Wilhelm Tell' Synod in Zurich by president Leopold Engel in Berlin.*

1933 — Karl Brodbeck "Rudolf" Provincial and Custodian for Switzerland (he also belonged to the Bernese 'Zur Hoffnung' Masonic lodge, the 'Droit Humain' Co-Masonic lodge, and was Master of the 'Zur Gralsburg' lodge), [23] achieved a merger with the Austrian provincial group. Brodbeck belonged to the group surrounding F.L. Pinkus (Metzger's "spiritual father"), which included Reuss's probable heir Hans Rudolf Hilfiker and his colleagues Reichel, Merlitschek, Bader, Baumgartner from Aarau ('Zur Treue' lodge), Struppler, and the Abramelin-enthusiast Traugott Egloff.

1935 — Foundation in Vienna of a new 'Areopagus' with anti-Semitic "Aryan" rules, and its own Grand Master, without permission from the Swiss Custodian. In the same year this led to a split: the Swiss Province declared the Austrian branch irregular. With the 'Anschluss' of Austria into the Third Reich in 1938, the latter group was dissolved. [24] Eduard Korbel was able to rescue the Order's papers.*

In 1935 the Pole Jan Korwin-Czarnomski "Elpher" was made 90° and 95° Memphis and Misraim at Warsaw for the 'La Pyramide du Nord en la Vallée de la Vistule' lodge Nº 16, and the 'Pelican à l'Aube Naissante' Rosicrucian Chapter Nº 3, and retained these posts until these lodges were closed. [25] Besides this, Czarnowski represented the Martinists in Poland, Greece, and Madagascar. In 1937 he created an offshoot of the anti-Semitic Austrian 'World League of Illuminati' group in Warsaw; but in 1938 all these lodges were closed down. By 1939 he was active in the ranks of Constant Chevillon and Swinburne-Clymer's anti-FUDOESI movement, and called upon Arnoldo Krumm-Heller, Hilfiker, and other people not mentioned here, to join him [26]. Members of the Warsaw 'World League' group included Stanislaw Czarnomski (his brother?), Robert Walter "Waltari" (who had seceded from the Anthroposophists; d. 1981), and Colonel Boris Smyslowski "Hermes" who rescued the vestiges of Memphis-Misraim from France after World War Two. Jan Czarnomski was murdered by the Gestapo on June 25th 1944. [27]





Austria



In 1949 the Austrian 'World League of Illuminati' was revived as the outer court of the Fraternitas Saturni by Eduard Korbel, who had amassed the titles of Grand Order Chancellor-General, Chancellor of the Austrian Province, Grand Magus 5°, and the highest degree of the Illuminati Order. [28] Another version has it that this revival was performed by one Hermann Medinger on November 11th 1949. [29]
H.J. Metzger was commissioned by Meyer in Berlin [30] to act as his go-between with Korbel in Vienna, because censorship of letters made direct contact difficult; as a Swiss citizen Metzger had a visa valid for Berlin and Vienna.* In 1950 Metzger was able to provide Korbel with copies of his rituals, as Korbel had been without books or documentation since 1945; [31] but this contradicts Metzger's later claim that he had inherited "authentic documents" from Korbel. [32] Members in Vienna (among others): Franz Spunda and Prof. Wunderlich; Korbel also advertised his fraternity in the astrological magazine "Mensch und Kosmos"; his circle was describ by Metzger as "A group of illustrious scholars and devotees, consisting of peaceful and enlightened people." [33]

1949-1953 — Carl Krivsky "Klotwald" was Custodian of the Austrian 'World League.'*

1953-4 — This position was taken over by Hermann Medinger "Manfred", who had belonged to the 'World League' since 1931, and was Provincial of the Lower Austrian group.*

Karl Brodbeck died on January 6th 1955 in Switzerland. Metzger was then made Custodian for Switzerland on May 1st through the offices of Korbel in Vienna; this was commissioned by a charter signed by Julius Meyer during Metzger's journey to Vienna on behalf of the Fraternitas Saturni. Metzger believed this now gave him permission "to fulfil the union, and to take the Order's work and expansion in hand," to discover the connections surrounding the O.T.O.'s origins, which he viewed thus: "The O.T.O. under Reuss split from the Illuminati Order in 1902." Eduard Korbel received his first mention in Metzger's publications in May 1955. [34]

1954-1958 — Holecek-Hollschowitz "Herbert" was Custodian in Austria.*

1953 — Julius Meyer passed his office on to Maximilian Haitz, and died on November 16th 1955.

25.1.1958. The Chancellor Korbel died, and Metzger's mistress Anita Borgert "Ainyahita" became Order Grand Chancellor. [35] In Austria Dr. Danneberg "Dietrich" became Custodian, and Prof. Rieger "Hildebrand" Chancellor.* "Danneberg was vice-president of the district court at Korneuburg in Lower Austria, and the brother of the leader of Austria's Social Democratic party — Rieger was considered to be a Nazi and 'Aryan'." [36]

1960 — The names of Hans Trösch (Karlsruhe) and Karl Prosvic (Vienna) appear in Metzger's publications. In Metzger's obituary of Korbel, the title 'I.O.' occurs publicly for the first time. [37] On March 1st Metzger began recruiting for the IO: "Will those who are interested please notify us." [38]. On March 1st 1962 Metzger's first mention of the 'World League of Illuminati' appeared. [39]

27.10.1965 — Maximilian Haitz died.

December 1968 — Metzger spoke for the first time of his "Masonic Museum of the Illuminati Order." [40]

1969 — The 'World League' in Austria went into abeyance. Probably spurred on by Walter Englert, [41] Hermann Medinger felt able to resume his position as Custodian. Metzger opposed this, as Danneberg was still the most authoritative figure to him.* Although Medinger, sounding like a character from Mozart's "Magic Flute", was inclined to think that "Vengeance is unknown in these holy halls," [42] "the Swiss sisters and brothers were considered to be dangerous servants of Satan." [43] Medinger named himself Grand Chancellor of the 'Illuminati Order for Austria,' and published instructions for his "Radiæsthesic system". [44]

18.2.1972 — Gustav Frey (born 13.1.12) was made Master of the 'Lavater' Lodge in Zurich. Frey "Jeremias" who was a bookseller by trade, had been to Metzger's lectures in 1950, and had recieved the Light of the Masons on December 8th 1951; he became an officer of the 'Lavater' Lodge in 1964, and died on May 1st 1972. [45]





Sole Heir



Friedrich-Wilhelm Haack's knowledge of the 'World League' succession was that Julius Meyer had left a power of attorney with Maximilian Haitz to regain the League's estate, which had been confiscated by the Gestapo; this Haitz duly did. But this hardly gave Haitz a claim on Meyer's succession, nor one on the ownership of the estate; the sole beneficiary of Meyer's will was his son Gert, a retired police commissioner. [46] "Haitz had already obtained the goods from the East Berlin police with the aid of a receipt from Meyer, and after Meyer's death claimed to be his successor." [47] But Gert Meyer stated: "My father did not plan a revival of the Order after the War [...] I am my father's sole heir." [48]

Haack: "In accordance with the desires of the last Grand Master J. Meyer, there was no revival after 1945. All successor Orders (including the P[sychosophical] S[ociety] and the Frankfurt IO [see below]) have no authorised 'World League' tradition." [49]
"From a historical perspective, an alliance, say, between the Illuminati and the Rosicrucians is nonsense." [50] "The Order of Illuminates has [...] become an Order of magical religion." [51]

As to the papers which could document Metzger's successions to the O.T.O., F.R.A., GCC, or IO: "They waved with documents before our eyes — but we weren't even allowed to touch or look through them." [52]

Karl Brodbeck claimed that he had found a 'Grand Lodge of Atlantis' in the USA; a branch that had split off in the 1920s. [53] W. Collins proposed a line of succession from John Yarker Junior to Ronald Powell, the "Duc de Palatine" [54].





Illuminati and Templars



The disagreements between Reuss and Engel effectively gave Metzger "carte blanche" to mix the O.T.O. and Illuminati Order (IO): "as has already been repeatedly stated, a split occurred in the IO at the turn of the century, and one half of this consequently called itself the O.T.O. Both branches of the same tree are re-united." [55] "All other separated branches which we re-united with the Order after 1952 [?], we lead on an historical basis, and as a result of legal and equitable understandings." [56]
"Today's Ordo Illuminatorum has resolved itself as a reunion of the IO (Engel), OTO (Reuss), and FRA (Krumm-Heller) branches." [57] Reuss and Crowley had both thought differently (to Metzger); the IO was incorporated in the O.T.O.



The Ordo Templi Orientis Phenomenon — Adam Weishaupt — Die Erleuchteten — Illuminati




Hermann Joseph Metzger's Grade System



Oriflamme Ordo Illuminatorum Ordo Templi Orientis Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica

Metzger's collection of Orders was called the Illuminati Order or Ordo Illuminatorum interchangeably; it was rarely apparent whether this was meant to be the 'World League of Illuminati'. Leopold Engel himself made no great distinction between them, too. [58] In the "Anuario Americano Bucheli", Metzger made it clear that in his opinion Engel's 'World League' and Reuss's O.T.O. were united as the Ordo Illuminatorum. [59]

[On the right: Hermann Joseph Metzger]
Hermann Joseph Metzger Paragranus Gnostisch Katholische Kirche GKK Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica


Because disloyal IO-members had shown around the 'secret' teaching instructions, the "Oriflamme" now published all of them. The permits accompanying these teaching instructions were signed either by Frau Borgert, or else by a Brother 'Solitarius' or a Brother 'Catenus.' An air of gravity was lent to these proceedings with a reference to Reuss's statute of 1912: "Nobody may become an 'initiate' of the OTO who has not received the three Craft degrees of Freemaso nry."

Each aspirant "must undergo all the degrees of Craft Freemasonry, or else the Higher Degrees of Masonry, before they can become an enlightened and intiated member of our Order." This was in direct contradiction to Crowley's O.T.O. tradition.

Engel's IO (without Reuss) of 1903 had seven degrees: "The organisation called I.O. is no continuation of the IO of Adam Weishaupt" [60]. In 1925, Engel re-structured his order. [61] According to he Bulletin of the Masons in Vienna, self-initiation had been become the common use in Engel's IO. [62]

On April 25th 1951, Metzger told Eugen Grosche that since the Second World War the IO only had five degrees, "of which the Third is Grand Magus, roughly corresponding to the Gradus Templarius [of the then FS with only 10 degrees]. This means that within the org[anisation] it's not really seen as a rank-and-file grade, or senior degree."

After 1962 Metzger devised his own individual grade-system, which conflated the IO, O.T.O., F.R.A., and GCC. Here is a summary of the copy of his degree-list held by the Warburg Institute:

    I° — II°: Outer Order, Gnostic Catholic Church.
    III° — V°: Blue Masonry, Craft Masonry.
    VI° — VIII°: Red [or Royal Arch] Masonry. F.R.A. [Illuminati degree].
    X° — XII°: Mystical Masonry, O.T.O. [Illuminati degree].
    XIII°: Patriarchate, Areopagus, Illuminatus.


The degree system had been changed into nine "Working Divisions": IO, O.T.O., F.R.A., Masonic tradition, GCC, the "Thelema Free Spirit and Life School," the Psychosophical Press, the "Labor Thelema," and the "Thelema Restaurant Management." [63]

"The IO is a high-grade Order. Valid qualifications are the blue degrees of the Builders, Craft Masonry, and Co-Masonry." [64] "Our Order [...] will train an élite." [65]
"The ladder of blue, green, red, black, and white degrees signifies: the masons who construct the Temple, the final perfecters of the Temple who master true knowledge, the Rosicrucian Chapter who study the secrets of nature and art, the Knights Templar who defend the Temple, and the priestly degree who tend the Grail in the Temple." [66]
"The path is: Outer Court of the Temple — Builders of the Temple (Freemasonry) — Brotherhood of the Rose and Cross — Knight of the Temple — Presbytery or Priesthood in the Temple." [67]
"The Order's present-day rulership is on the lines of triads, in accordance with the Tree of Life [like the A.·. A.·.?]. Titles have been done away with in the Order, although the historical titles are implicitly retained. Thus the Order is directed by the Archbishop (the unseen head of the Church who rules solely through the Bishops), the Prefect (the visible head of the Order), and the Vicarius Ordinis (the unknown third of the group). The Præmonstrator General [of the A.·. A.·.?] is the fourth authority, who decides on publications after consultation with the Order's rulers." [68]
"The designation 'Order General of the IO', or else 'Order General of the OTO' is employed within the IO as the relevant title for one of the practical functions." [69]

Metzger's letter-headings carried, besides the various divisions (GCC, O.T.O., or IO), supplementary dignities: "Initium Sapientiæ Amor Domini, Fraternitas Lucis Hermeticæ, Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua, Ordo Illuminatorum" or else this: "Antiqui et Primitivi Liberorum Structorum Ritus de Memphis et Mizraim, Fraternitas Lucis Hermeticæ, Magnus Oriens Antiqui et Accepti Ritus Latomorum Moris Scotorum, Initium Sapientæ Amor Domini." [70] The 'Caliphate' was later to ape these pretentious letter-headings.

Metzger's titles included some from the World League of Illuminati: either "Swiss Provincial Group", or else "Ordo Illuminatorum Germaniæ," followed by "Eleusis 1776, sig.[n] Bro. Spartacus — Eleusis 1783, sig. Bro. Spartacus and Bro. Cato — Athens 1786, sig. Bro. Spartacus and Bro. Philo — Athens 1793, sig. Bro. Spartacus and Bro. Cato - O[rient] Berlin 1893, 1903, 1925, sig. Bro. Theophrastus. World League of Illuminati, address: Abbey of Thelema."

"Our statements are definitively based on historical knowledge and the authentic archival material of our order." [71]

On the arcanum: "Even authors who had studied the matter, avoided the essential (EVEN Leopold Engel did)." [72] Oscar R. Schlag thought that Metzger wouldn't have got much out of Engel, as like Ruess, he had only been an opera singer. Metzger referred directly to Adam Weishaupt; [73] but on the other hand it was "astonishing and incomprehensible that Adam Weishaupt was always referred to as being the originator of the Illuminati." [74]

Although Gustav Meyrink and Franz Spunda (author of "Baphomet"), were active members of the IO (the latter using the motto 'Sperontes' under Metzger), they were indiscriminately listed alongside names like those of "Goethe, Mozart, Wieland, Lavater, Pestalozzi, Humboldt, Knigge," as famous members. [75]
Similarly did Crowley in his Gnostic Mass (Metzger's version of it for internal Swiss use abridged its litany), or Reuss in his revelation of sexual magic in the "Oriflammes" of 1904 and 1912, where the doctrine of sex-magic as the key to the mysteries was followed. Where before in 1914 Reuss described every church-tower as a "symbol of the male organ" and every church-nave as a "symbol of the female organ" in his "Parsifal oder das entschlüsselte Gralsgeheimnis", [76] by 1968 Metzger knew stories of "frustrated old spinsters" who still saw a phallus in every church-tower, not to mention in cigarettes, penknives and kitchen-knives. Yet in the Swiss version of Crowley's "Magick in Theory and Practice", there was an additional chapter called 'Philosophy for All' in which Metzger went on in much the same tone against ubiquitous genitalia.

One of Horst Knaut's main themes in his "Quick" and "Neue Revue" articles concerned Metzger's Abbey of Thelema. Eventually, Metzger defended himself: "The IO (with the OTO, FRA, and GCC) is not concerned with a 'mission from the spirit-world', and does not represent itself as an 'occult group'. It claims to be a non-denominational, politically neutral, philanthropic and humanitarian body, and has its origins in the Age of Enlightenment." [77] Fräulein Äschbach explained the IO's distinction between magical ritual and psychoanalysis in these terms: as opposed to "psychagogy, psychohygiene, and psychotherapy," the Order's method was enhanced by making use "mainly of folklore, ritual, symbolism, and tried-and-tested techniques." [78] "We will not alter any premise; we wish to reconstruct from antiquity - thereby gaining insight and clarity." [79]
Eugen Grosche had already made a similar statement about his Fraternitas Saturni: "We will not use new formulæ in any case, but only the old forms, the primitive symbols, which will be learnt anew, to understand, use, and establish the new rhythm [of the New Aeon]." [80]

Walter Englert {see next section or this summary} disagreed: "Leaving old formulæ unaltered means being enslaved by them. If you remain critical enough to test them and improve on them, you will make progress." [81]

In the course of the struggle for dominance between the various O.T.O. groupings, the received wisdom about Metzger in the 'Caliphate' was that "he has slept through the Thelemic revival. The additional chapter in "Magick" is moronic rubbish [82] and the Oriflamme is epicene." [83]
"There was a pretty large discrepancy between what he published and what he did." [84]
But in that case: "It would be an overstatment to say that the Illuminati are 'superior' to the O.T.O. — they are however identical. All degrees up to and including VI° (equivalent to 33° in the old system) are what Reuss termed 'lay-brother' degrees. O.T.O. membership proper began at VII°. Reuss states of the degrees VII°-X° that 'these are the real active members of O.T.O., also called the Hermetic Brotherhood of Light, or Illuminati'. The title of the IX° is Illuminatus Perfectus." [85]





The Heavenly Stormtroopers



Walter Englert, was born on March 16th 1924 in Frankfurt at 9.13 a.m.; on December 29th 1962 he received the 13°, and on April 4th 1963 the 12° and 18° from Eugen Grosche. [86]

[On the right: Walter Englert]
Walter Englert Ptahotep Fraternitas Saturni Illuminati


"Effectively made 'homeless' by the sudden death of his Grand Master Gregor A. Gregorius," on January 5th 1964 [87] Englert was appointed into the "miner[v?]al collection at Stein" under the motto 'Telepharos' by E. Engeler "Angelus" on May 27th 1964; on May 29th that year he received the "Masonic light" from Metzger himself in Zurich, in his 'Limmat zum Kompass' Lodge. On May 31st, he married his wife Uta at the 'Rose und Kreuz' church in Zurich, the union being blessed by Bishop "Josephus M+" (= Metzger), with his no doubt suitably non-denominational version of a priest's marriage blessing. [88] Hermann Joseph Metzger Walter Englert Gnostisch Katholische Kirche Rose und Kreuz Bishop Josephus M+


In early 1964 Paul R. Audehm (who had known Englert since 1963) travelled to Stein with his friend and work-colleague Peter Lerch "Petrus". The encounter had apparently been "determined by Gregorius." [89] During the night after the first meeting with Metzger, Rösli Metzger appeared in a dream to Audehm, with what he described as an "ecstatically distorted expression." [90] In the summer of 1965 Audehm was initiated into the novice degree of the Illuminati Order at Zurich under his motto of Brother 'Mundus.'

On June 18th 1965 Englert was called by Metzger to the Companion degree, and on October 17th that year, on the occasion of his initiation into the 0° OTO by Günther Naber "Beatus", he recieved a quotation from "Liber AL": "O azure-lidded woman, bend upon them!" (Ch.1 v. 19). On October 19th, Naber bestowed the Master's degree on him, and shortly after on the 22nd in Zurich, Metzger appointed him as X° for Germany; [91] Emil Scheidegger was a witness. "The integrity of this witnessed, fully ratified document is not to be doubted." [92]

In the same month, October, a circular was sent out from Stein, containing pleas to "the Brothers for their increasingly active efforts, proper appreciation, and practical support in the widest sense." Yet by December Stein was complaining about "Brothers splitting away." "The O[rder] requires every Brother to recruit one or more successors"; [93] it was added that the October circular had not been "justified self-criticism." During the Christmas and New Year 1965-66, anyone wanting to take a break at Stein would have been disappointed; due to alocal outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, the district was officially quarantined.

In early 1966, Gabriel Montenegro visited Stein from the USA; we will meet Montenegro (a Mexican by birth), again in other chapters, e.g. on the Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua and the Mysteria Mystica Maxima. Suffice it to say here that he possessed a doctorate of medicine from a body called the "Sierra State University" (which was a fraudulent 'degree-mill'), and was appointed 33°, IX°, and O.T.O. Supreme Sovereign for both North and South America by Metzger. [94] Audehm: "In his retinue there were two peculiar American gentlemen, whom we suspected of being CIA. At Dornach [the headquarters of Anthroposophy] after 'Monti' produced his Lodge certificate, we were able to penetrate to the Holy of Holies; we were conducted therein with great courtesy by a member of the I.O. — a Brother Leo from Zurich. [...] Then on Sunday Herr Schlag arrived with about five people and made Montenegro's acquaintance, (as well as [Adolf] Hemberger and myself) [...] One morning we discovered all 'Monti's' charters, passwords and --- signs spread out on the table in the bar [of the Gasthof Rose...] The way I heard it, 'Monti' then left without even saying goodbye, completely humiliated [...] However Montenegro wore a Bishop's ring, and maintained that he would be welcomed in Rome at any time. I believe that he was." [95]

Englert brought Prosper Wilhelm Maurer (b. 20.6.1892) to Stein on June 20th 1966. From October 14th-18th that year Englert stayed at Stein to arrange for the founding of a lodge in Frankfurt. Then on November 11th, at 11 p.m. [96] the 'Freiherr Adolf von Knigge' Lodge was brought into being by Annemarie Äschbach, Anita Borgert and Metzger at Frankfurt; and Messrs Paul Rüdiger Audehm (Chancellor), his "closest friend" [97] Englert (Master), and Peter Lerch (Delegate for Switzerland) were empowered to "work the First to Third Degrees." This lodge was registered with the authorities six weeks later as an O.T.O.-IO incorporated association. Yet only a year later, the 19 members of this lodge split from the Swiss.

Audehm: "I won't even try to defend myself as the begetter of this development. No doubt I am guilty of skimming over ill-digested magical ideas — and not least of some remaining traces of Christian decency and feeling. The Swiss 'Grand Master' could not stand my [...] upholding Christian ethics, and that I disapproved of his behaviour towards female Order members — not excluding married women." [98]

Various letters "to the Strs. and Bros. of the Freiherr Adolf von Knigge Lodge" emanated from Stein, imploring these initiates to "enter calmly together into an exchange of views." Then the Swiss, sensing that the final breach was coming, decided to publish their instructional material in the Oriflamme, since their secrets were no longer safe with the Frankfurt lodge. "In response to the eavesdropping on information from other obediences [...] Bros. should confine themselves to practical work." [99]

Gabriel Montenegro was drawn into the dispute, and though hitherto satisfied with Metzger, began to have doubts about him. The country doctor Günther Naber, so far loyal to Metzger (he was one of the five members of the IX° who elected Metzger as OHO in January 1963) described events in Switzerland for the Mexican: "They'd let nothing more appear from the 'Thelema' press since the 'Self-Knowledge' book. [100] The duties of running the hotel — the bar, kitchen. etc. — in the 'Rose' guest-house at Stein, and the renovations and new building-works there, were taking up all the participants' time, or so we were assured [...] From Wisdom's abundant breasts, copiously flowing Spiritus (Sanctus?) created a kind of ecstatic consciousness, so much so, that we could only tremble in fear and awe. So there wasn't much left for us to do but to wait in humble and childlike submission, while talking about the conditions for realizing Thelema." (Late July 1968).

About this time Audehm distributed his "Dokumentation über einen Ordensschwindel" ("Documentation on a Fraudulent Order") [101] in which came to terms with Metzger's titles. His starting-point was the charter Metzger gave to Englert, Audehm and Lerch on November 11th 1966. "We, H. Josephus M., Frater Paragranus, Bearer of the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of France, Grand Cross of the Order of Joachites, Profess-Knight of the Ordo Militiæ Templi Cruci [OMCT], Sovereign Grand Master General, O.H.O., Vicarius Ordinis of the Order of Oriental Templars, Sovereign Grand Master of the Order of Illuminati, Sovereign Grand Master General of the Fraternitas Rosicruciæ Antiqua, and Sovereign Patriarch Ecclesiæ Gnosticæ Catholicæ... [etc.]"

Audehm asked the French Embassy in Bonn for information about this, and got this reply: "I beg to inform you that Herr Josef Hermann Metzger is not in the ranks of those honoured with the Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit." And: "I must add that there was an 'phantom' honour under the title of 'National French Merit' (and not 'National Order of Merit'). It was conferred by an association unknown to me [...] I know of no Order of Saint Joachim."

Horst E. Miers made full use of Audehm's "Dokumentation" for his "Lexikon des Geheimwissens" ("Dictionary of Secret Knowledge") [102], even though Metzger tried to produce a legal justification for his antics. "The exact description is 'Grand Cross-Bearer of the Order of Merit of France', according to the document of 10th January 1953, issued by the Universal Order of Knights of Honour and Brothers of Merit (Ordre Universel des Chevaliers de l'Honneur et Compagnons du Mérite) 'pour reconnaître les services rendus a l'humanité'." [103]

R. Horst, the OMCT's Chancellor, informed Audehm that Metzger was no longer a member of the organisation. [104]

On July 23rd 1968 Walter and Uta Englert, together with Audehm and Hemberger, united to depose Metzger from his offices as their chief.

Montenegro wrote to Naber: "I received an answer [...] from Bro. Englert [...] He states that he was designated in your presence, not only as X° OTO, but also OHO: something which would give him world-wide jurisdiction? [...] Am I to understand a complete take-over is contemplated?" [105].

Naber to Montenegro: "To me it appears unjust to accept grades and offices from an O[rder]-Chief, and then to disqualify this chief whilst illegally continuing to confer those same grades and offices." [106]


On October 25th 1968, precisely six years after Karl Germer's death, Metzger took the initiative: "To all who have belonged to the Frankfurt group and registered society Ordo Illuminatorum!" Walter and Uta Englert, Paul Rüdiger, Audehm and Peter Lerch [107] were stripped of the "right to appear or act in the name of the Order, or to use the Order's name for themselves or a group." The November 1966 warrant was annulled, as was the group's registration with the authorities in Frankfurt. Ordo Illuminatorum Germaniae Stein Appenzell





Gabriel Montenegro from the Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua



Günther Naber wrote to Gabriel Montenegro on 29.10.68: "In those ten years I had got no REAL progress out of the Order; and most of the Bros. who I know were similarly disappointed. But any open criticism of this sort met with the reprimand that we were not doing our duties well enough in accord with the solemn oath we had taken [...] It is known that many others quietly withdrew from the O[rder]; the reasons for this certainly has something to do with P[aragranus]'s 'initiated' behaviour in public, and how his teachings and sayings contrasted with his defects as a spiritual leader, as well as his lack of sincerity and his secretiveness. 'Do what thou wilt' only had a theoretical meaning there, since having an original thought was treated as treason or else mocked. Consequently one parroted what his lordship said — or stayed silent. Practicalities or spiritual matters were hardly ever mentioned; the usual conversations were average bar-room stuff." [108]

Naber departed, asking for all his personal writings, including his diaries to be returned to him in July 1972, and allied himself (via Erler's ORA?) to Oscar Schlag and Walter Studinski. [109]

Montenegro did not know on what basis Englert and his nineteen followers had been able to set up shop; whether with Englert's 18° Charter dating from 13.4.1963, or with the Charter to work three degrees under the 'World League of Illuminati' heading dated 11.11.1966, or else with Englert playing the part of OHO. [110]





Structure in Frankfurt



Illuminaten Orden Frankfurt Walter Englert

The question as to what rituals were worked in Frankfurt is probably answered by the letter of 25.10.1968 in which Metzger demanded that "5 ritual books for the L.'. Lodge" be returned, amongst other things. As a co-founder, Audehm stated that the use of the name alone was quite sufficient for him, as he had introduced a new set of ingredients into the organisation. Afterwards Audehm made a confession about his projected degree-system: "we hadn't got one — so we made one up." [111]

The Illuminati Order as expanded to 24 degrees by Audehm and Englert, included the O.T.O. as its 18°, like the earlier project by Metzger and Grosche (to incorporate the O.T.O. in Germany as 18th degree into the FS).


Illuminati Degrees Frankfurt Walter Englert Ordo Templi Orientis

"18th. Standard-Bearer of the ORIFLAMME, Knight Templar of the OTO. The OTO's work does not especially consist of Magic (although it contains a distinction between the genders) apart for its being geared towards the achievement of a world-wide Imperium [...] The Law of 'Do what thou wilt' is the Law of this NEW STATE [...] in our days the OTO will appear in public — as HEAVENLY STORM-TROOPERS! The holder of the 18th degree has the power to create a new Order-province, or Order-enclave, wherever he shall pl ease. Further, he can himself found new Orders.
In Nomine: Fra Telepharos
[Englert] 24° IO, 33°, 90°, 97°, X° OTO. Fra Mundus [Audehm] 23° IO, 32°, 89°, 95°." [112]
"The OTO and the Gnosis (Gnostic Church) are part of the Illuminati Order." [113]

Hermann Medinger (from the Austrian IO) and Theodor Czepl (a follower of Lanz Liebenfels) were active in Frankfurt for a short time. "The contact died out. These gentlemen were something of a simple quality to us." [114]
Medingers "Notes on Astral Traveling" first appeared in Englert's periodical: “Der Illuminat” — in December 1969. Imprimatur Ordo Militiae Caelestis.

Eventuallly, Audehm parted from Englert: "The Frankfurt IO got in my way too much, with its petty outlook." [115]
While Metzger taught by way of correspondence, Englert made use of tapes. [116]





Too big to Fail?



"Did the Order fail because it was not able to prevent such a thing, because it was not competent to train the promised élite, in which people would have been able to serve as leaders in the future awakening? Did we, the students, fail in this?" Metzger expressed his doubts in the "Oriflamme" during 1970.


Englert made enquiries of the local council at Stein whether Metzger could be certified as feeble-minded. The council's chairman informed him that Metzger was "apparently fighting-fit for all-comers." [117] Walter Englert Hermann Joseph Metzger Illuminati local council at Stein


Metzger took Englert to court four times altogether — and lost every case, even his lawsuit over the right to use particular names and titles, which was tried at the Federal Court in Karlsruhe. Hemberger appeared as an 'expert witness'. "The names of Haitz and Kirchvogel mentioned by Metzger [...] are not known to me. [118] The title 'Ordo Ill.-Germaniæ' does not appear in this connection." [The decisions over the FS and O.T.O. appear at the end of chapter about the Song of the Whitewash]. [119]

Metzger was duly ordered to pay full costs. [120] "Legal protection of names holds good for limited liability companies and for not registered societies." (Paragraph 12 of the Civil Code).

Due to a Swiss-German agreement on legal aid, special arrangements existed between the two countries. So it was possible (in the first instance) to sue for the legal fees and court-costs for all four cases in St. Gallen, when the judgements of each individual court could be investigated once more. Englert engaged a lawyer in St. Gallen to sue for costs, whereupon Metzger made a declaration to the court that he had no funds at his disposal. In Switzerland it is the rule that one side in a lawsuit must establish what funds, property, or valuables the other side possesses. [121]

The legal arguments demonstrated that neither the Abbey of Thelema nor the Psychosophical Society could be prosecuted for the 12,000 Deutschmark fine against the Ordo Illuminatorum. This latter, it appeared, had formed itself as an independent, sovereign society with its own funds. [122] Nor could Metzger himself be sued, since the OI's statutes did not provide for membership-fees (this in contrast to the 1950 statutes).

These disputes brought F.W. Haack — representative of established religion, and Horst Knaut — exponent of tabloid journalism, into the picture; both industriously collected documentation from Gerald Yorke, Audehm, and Walter Jantschik. Haack was also furnished with information from anonymous sources at this time in order he did not give them much weight in his publications.





Paul Ruediger Audehm



Audehm had gained his first practical occult experiences with the Lectorium Rosicrucianum; but at the Frankfurt FS lodge in 1962 he was "the only guest who appeared [...] even though he was only a snooper and a crank." [123]

In early 1969 Audehm started the periodical "Zion" in collaboration with Englert. In Stephan Grasser's 'Kether Lodge' Audehm went by the name 'Alagris', but he was expelled on 15.4.1969: "Just like he was thrown out [...] of the Ordo Illuminatorum in Stein." [124] Joseph Grasser: "Audehm wrote to me that he wanted to get rid of Metzger, that he favoured someone other for the position of Grand Master, [...] the new Grand Master had already been nominated to his place, according to what Audehm stated to an American [Montenegro]. Audehm also pretends to be X° OTO." [125]

After being "befriended" by Metzger in the 1960s, by December 1986 Grasser was certain in his own mind that he had been magically menaced with illness by both the Stein and Frankfurt O.T.O. groups.

In February 1969 Audehm founded his own individual Zion Lodge, and in 1971 the "Ecclesia Universalis Tempelieren von Jeruschalajim" ("Ecclesia Universalis of Templars of Yerushalayim.") In 1976 the "Christkatholische Aszetik" ("Christian Catholic Ascetic") began publication, in which Audehm wrote after 1977 under the "nom de plume" of 'Uodil von Mihingart' about the "global conspiracy against Christendom." [126] Using the alias 'Arp Königsberger' Audehm published small leaflets from this time on.

In 1985 Englert advertised in the "Spirituelle Adressbuch", stating that from now on he could not accept any more new members "due to the great number of candidates." [127]


28 May 2011: Walter Englert died.






NOTES TO CHAPTER ELEVEN OF "Das O.T.O. Phänomen" (1994)


  1. The "Oriflamme", 1914, pp. 7-10.
  2. Reuss: "Was man von der Freimaurerei wissen muss", 1910, p. 76. According to Howe and Möller, this work had previously appeared in 1901; Howe & Möller, op. cit. p. 115.
  3. Frick, op. cit. Vol II, p. 465. The "Oriflamme" for July-December 1906 gives the date as 31.5.1896, on p. 108. Likewise Engel in his letter of 11.1.1930 to Eugen Lennhof.
  4. The "Oriflamme" of July 1914, p. 14 = Frick, op. cit. Vol II, p. 466. Brodbeck: "Freimauerei", Berne 1948, p. 102, gives the foundation-date of Engel's IO as 1896.
  5. Hans-Jürgen Glowka: "Deutsche Okkultgruppen", Munich 1981, p. 45.
  6. Meerane 1900, p. 30. The cover displayed Carl Kellner's OTO sigil. Illustration in "AHA" Nº 4, Bergen 1991, p. 8., facsimile in Koenig/Der Grosse Theodor Reuss Reader, 1997
  7. Frick op. cit. Vol II, p. 466; and "Oriflamme" 1914, p. 8.
  8. Frick ibid, p. 462.
  9. "Wiener Freimaurerzeitung" 9/10, October 1929, p. 25.
  10. Facsimiles of all these letters will be found in Lady Queensborough (Edith Starr Miller): "Occult Theocracy", France 1933 and Christian Book Club of America 1976. This volume also contains reproductions of the correspondence between Reuss and 'Papus' (Encausse), and various other Theosophists, Martinists, the Order of Mopses; also the only extant facsimile reproduction of Reuss's 1912 charter for Crowley. Leslie (or Lesley) Fry (Paquita Shismarev), quotes these letters in his article 'Les Missionaires du Gnosticisme', in the "Revue Internationale des Sociétés Secrètes" for May 1931, pp. 461-547.
  11. Jubilee edition of the "Oriflamme", 1912, p. 15.
  12. Lorch 1933, second edition.
  13. "Im Jenseits", 1921, and Bietigheim 1981, p. 4.
  14. Frick: op. cit. Vol. II, 467; Howe & Möller pp. 261 and 329.
  15. Brodbeck: op. cit. p. 103. Metzger claimed it was 11.9.1928 in his "Oriflamme" Nº 94 1968, p. 1000.
  16. Lorch 1928, and Munich 1987.
  17. Brodbeck: op. cit. p. 104.
  18. ibid.
  19. The date derived from the 'original' charter of 28.1.1966, in which Kirchvogel made Metzger supreme head. Haitz's previous 'power of attorney' dated from 30.11.55; facsimile in Koenig/Materialien zum OTO
  20. 'Original' charter of 28.1.1966.
  21. "Wiener Freimaurerzeitung" 6/29, p. 17.
  22. ibid.
  23. Brodbeck, op. cit. p. 7.
  24. Brodbeck, op. cit. p. 104; Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 94 1968, p. 1001.
  25. Clymer: "Book of Rosicruciæ" Vol. III, 1949, p. 174.
  26. ibid. pp. xxiii and 168.
  27. Rafal T. Prinke, letter of 24.9.88; and 'Polnischer Satanismus und Sexualmagie', in "AHA" Nº 9, Bergen 1991, p. 18
  28. Korbel was already a member of the FS before WWII; Grosche to Metzger, letter of 14.9.50.
  29. Miers: "Lexikon des Geheimwissens", Munich 1986 (6th edition), p. 273.
  30. Ellic Howe, letter of 24.9.87: "I know nothing about Metzger's possession of a Charter for Engel's 'Weltbund der Illuminaten'."
  31. Metzger to Grosche, letter of 13.11.50.
  32. Metzger to Margarete Berndt, letter of 2.3.64.
  33. Metzger to Grosche, letter of 8.8.51.
  34. "EOL-Mitteilungsblatt" Nº 11, Zurich 1955, p. 8.
  35. The titles 'Custodian' (Kustos), 'Chancellor' (Kanzler), 'Order Grand Chancellor' (Grossordenskanzler), 'Provincial' (Provinzial), 'Regent', and 'Prefect' are muddled, and not given clearly in the list of ranks. In every statute the Illuminati Order (sometimes equated with the 'World League of Illuminati') consists of five, six, seven, or even nine degrees.
  36. Josef Dvorak, letter of 16.11.90.
  37. "EOL-Mitteilungsblatt" Nº 44, Stein 1958, p. 3.
  38. "EOL-Mitteilungsblatt" Nº 69, Stein 1960, p. 1.
  39. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 13, Zurich 1962, p. 155.
  40. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 94, Zurich 1968, p. 1001.
  41. Medinger had published in Englert's journal "der illuminat".
  42. Herman Medinger, letter of 29.8.88.
  43. Dvorak, letter of 11.8.89.
  44. Knaut, "Rückkehr", Berne 1970, p. 51.
  45. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 123, Zurich 1972, p. 1403.
  46. Haack, letter of 21.11.86.
  47. Haack, letter of 14.12.87.
  48. Gert Meyer to Haack, letter of 28.2.73.
  49. F.W. Haack: "Freimaurer", (7th edition) Munich 1974, p. 24; see also Helmut Möller: 'Die Bruderschaft der Gold + und Rosenkreuzer', in "Freimaurer und Geheimbünde", Frankfurt 1986, p. 221.
  50. Haack: "Freimaurer", p. 29.
  51. F.W. Haack: "Geheimreligion der Wissenden", Munich 1985 (6th edition), p. 28.
  52. Audehm, letter of 17.8.88
  53. Karl Brodbeck: "Freimaurerlogen, die verschiedenen Systeme und ähnliche Organisationen", Berne 1948, p. 102.
  54. "Illuminati Connections", p. 19.
  55. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 46, Zurich 1964, p. 551.
  56. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 138, Zurich 1973, p. 1579.
  57. "Erleuchtete?", Zurich 1964, p. 191.
  58. "Der Illuminatismus einst und jetzt", Leipzig, no date.
  59. Ed. Kier, Buenos Aires 1963, p. 108.
  60. Reuss: "Was muss man von der Freimaurerei wissen", Berlin 1920, p. 78.
  61. Brodbeck: "Freimaurerlogen", p. 103.
  62. p. 17.
  63. Protocol dated 31.5.66.
  64. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 87-91, Zurich 1968, p. 941; And Anita Borgert in: "Oriflamme-Seminarvorlesung 4", Zurich 1972, p. 2.
  65. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 87-91, Zurich 1968, 962
  66. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 138, Zurich 1973, p. 1579.
  67. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 76, Zurich 1967, p. 820.
  68. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 46, Zurich 1964, p. 551.
  69. Statement made by L. Delp in the matter of Metzger versus Englert, Munich 1972, p. 10.
  70. Illustrations in "AHA" August 1991. p. 17.
  71. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 113, Zurich 1972, p. 1283.
  72. " EOL-Mitteilungsblatt" Nb 67, Zurich 1960, p. 2; emphasis as in the original. Likewise Annemarie Äschbach during a personal conversation at Stein on 11.9.86.
  73. Conversation with Oscar Schlag.
  74. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 45, Zurich 1964, p. 539; and "Oriflamme" Nº 76, Zurich 1967, p. 819.
  75. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 120, Zurich 1972, p. 1368.
  76. Schmiedeberg 1914. Reprinted in "AHA" Nº 6, Bergen/Dumme 1992.
  77. Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nº 120, Zurich 1972, p. 1368. Resembles Reuss in the 'Historical Number' of the "Oriflamme" 1904, and the 'Jubilee Edition' of 1912.
  78. 'Das pädagogische System des Illuminaten Ordens' in: "Oriflamme-Seminarvorlesung 10", Zurich 1975, p. 20.
  79. Annemarie Aeschbach, conversation on 11.9.86 at Stein.
  80. "Blätter für angewandte Okkulte Lebenskunst" Nº 34, Berlin 1953, p. 3.
  81. "der illuminat", Frankfurt 1969.
  82. This chapter lamented over "growing call-girl rings, homosexuality, prostitution and their abuse in orgies." Metzger's "Oriflamme" Nºs 27 & 28, Zurich 1963, pp. 318-333; and in "Magie als Philosophie für alle", Zurich 1964, pp. 357-405.
  83. Norbert Straet (VIIIth 'Caliphate'), letter of 3.11.86.
  84. Straet, letter of 21.1.87.
  85. William Breeze ('Caliph') via Straet, letter of 11.3.87.
  86. Report on the FS Grand Lodge convention.
  87. Audehm: "Kampf um Erlösung", Frankfurt 1980, p. 8.
  88. The 'Loge am Limmat zum Kreuz' and the 'Kirche Rose und Kreuz' was the house of either Brother 'Leo', or Fräulein Annemarie Äschbach, according to Markus Kumer; conversation on 16.9.91.
  89. Audehm, letter of 8.7.88.
  90. Audehm: "Kampf um Erlösung", Frankfurt 1980, p. 7.
  91. "Interner Fragebogen für die Br. und Sr. der Loge Adolf F.v. Knigge"; edition at the Warburg Institute, London.
  92. G. Naber to G. Montenegro, letter of 29.10.68.
  93. Written personal descriptions were demaned of worthwhile potential students. Supplementary note to "Lehrbrief" I/1.
  94. Englert and Audehm: 'In Gedenken an Dr. Gabriel Montenegro', in "Zion" Vol. I Nº 7, Frankfurt 1969, p. 88.
  95. Audehm, letter of 8.7.88.
  96. Audehm, "Kampf", p. 9.
  97. ibid. p. 8.
  98. ibid. p. 9.
  99. 1.12.67.
  100. Adam Weishaupt: "Über die Selbstkenntnis", p. 3. Zurich 1966 edition, containing a foreword by Metzger, and Leopold Engel's foreword to the second edition; the first edition was published in 1794.
  101. Frankfurt 1968, edition of approximately 100 copies.
  102. Sixth Munich edition 1986, p. 281.
  103. Anita Borgert an Ludwig Delp, letter of 2.12.70
  104. R. Horst to P.R. Audehm, letter of 19.11.68.
  105. Gabriel Montenegro to Günther Naber, letter of 4.10.68.
  106. Naber to Montenegro, letter of 9.10.68.
  107. Lerch never played a part in the IO.
  108. Naber to Montenegro, letter of 29.10.68.
  109. Studinski to Schlag, letter of 17.11.81.
  110. Montenegro to Englert, letter of 19.1.69.
  111. Audehm, letter of 8.7.88.
  112. Hemberger, "Panosophie" Vol. II Nº 1, p. 88.
  113. "der illuminat", Frankfurt December 1969, p. 41.
  114. Audehm, letter of 8.7.88.
  115. Audehm, "Kampf", p. 21.
  116. "der illuminat", December 1969, p. 52.
  117. Letter to Englert of 3.3.71.
  118. The documents cited at the beginning of this chapter were submitted to me by this gentleman. They are published in my "Materialien zum OTO", ARW 1994
  119. Note dated 5.2.71.
  120. Decision of Zurich Federal Court, record Nº II ZR 66/74; the plaintiff was Metzger (represented by Baron von Stackelberg), versus Englert (represented by Dr. Röhricht).
  121. Englert to Schlag, letter of 15.12.75.
  122. Rempfler to Haarkötter, letter of 30.1.1976.
  123. Grosche to Englert, letter of 7.11.62.
  124. Grasser's "Warning" of 15.4.1969.
  125. Grasser to H.T. Hakl, Brief of 4.6.69.
  126. "1. Kreuzzugs-Brief", Frankfurt 1977, p. 1.
  127. Ahlerstedt 1985, p. 165. In the 1987 edition the advertisement was considerably shortened.




Translated and adapted from a chapter on the O.T.O. Protagonists in "Das O.T.O.-Phänomen" (Munich 1994) by Mark Parry-Maddocks German original online.
Das Milieu des Templer Reichs — Die Sklaven Sollen Dienen. / The Templar's Reich — The Slaves Shall Serve / Versiune romana: Reich-ul Templier

History of the Illuminaten-Orden
    German original online
Texts by Leopold Engel:
    Satzung des Illuminaten Ordens
    Der Illuminatismus einst und jetzt
Karl Brodbeck: Der Illuminatenorden
Text by Hermann Medinger: Rituals of the IO
Summary on the Court Case Metzger vs Englert with many scans.
Gabriel Montenegro's correspondence with European Thelemites in the 1960s.






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       Societas Totius Mundi Illuminatorum

Societas Totius Mundi Illuminatorum




Secrets of the Rosicrucians, Templars and the Illuminati

Secrets of the Rosicrucians, Templars and the Illuminati, Peter-Robert Koenig




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